Future Market Definition


For example, if Iran threatens to close the Strait of Hormuz, the commodities prices will change dramatically. The safest ways to invest in commodities futures are through commodity funds. They can be commodity exchange-traded funds or commodity mutual funds. These funds incorporate the broad spectrum of commodities futures that occur at any given time.


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  • For example, the initial margin of one wheat futures contract is $2,500, which is a required minimum to open a trade on a futures exchange.
  • Therefore, if the price goes up, the speculator profits at the expense of the producer, but if the price goes down, the speculator pays to protect the price for the producer.
  • Maintenance margin – This refers to the amount that you must maintain at any given time in your trading account to cover potential losses on your positions.
  • The price quickly moved back into positive territory and was trading around $40.00 by June.
  • It’s a form of equity compensation, a popular form of employee compensation as employee stock options .

This was the true birth of “traded options.” Several factors also contributed to the growth of traded option markets. First, the ability to calculate a “fair” price for options was made possible with the introduction of a mathematical formula, which was widely accepted by the market. Second, the market maker system was upgraded to insure there was always a two-way price quoted thus insuring liquidity. Third was the growth of computer processing, which enabled large numbers of trades to be efficiently matched, cleared, and settled. The label is unique to the futures markets, and many broker/dealers serve in the role of an FCM either through subsidiaries or through departments dedicated to the futures business.

Introduction – what is Futures Trading?

On the delivery date, the amount exchanged is not the specified price on the contract but the spot value, since any gain or loss has already been previously settled by marking to market. In a futures market, we call the purchaser and seller of a contract the ‘long’ and the ‘short‘ respectively. Long-term equity anticipation securities are options contracts with expiration dates that are longer than one year. Futures are used to hedge the price movement of an underlying asset to help prevent losses from unfavorable price changes. The investor agrees that if the price for coffee goes below a set rate, the investor agrees to pay the difference to the coffee farmer.


https://trading-market.org/ contracts are used by businesses to hedge risks, and traders use futures to speculate on both the future of one commodity and the market in general. A futures contract is a derivative instrument that derives its value from the price of some underlying asset such as a commodity or market index. On the other hand, a stock represents an ownership stake in a real business and its value comes from the future earnings and cash flow expected to be generated by the business. In many cases, options are traded on futures, sometimes called simply “futures options”.

Content: Cash Market Vs Future Market

All futures transactions in the United States are regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission , an independent agency of the United States government. The commission has the right to hand out fines and other punishments for an individual or company who breaks any rules. Although by law the commission regulates all transactions, each exchange can have its own rule, and under contract can fine companies for different things or extend the fine that the CFTC hands out. The first two characters identify the contract type, the third character identifies the month and the last two characters identify the year. Companies can hedge the price of their raw materials or products they sell to protect against adverse price movements.


By the end of 1993, there were about 100 futures products in mainland China. It seemed that the developing futures market had somewhat lost control. Growth of volume traded on the two exchanges over the 20-year period; initially stimulated by the increase in production of the underlying during the 1970s, the market has more than doubled. The second point underlines the nature of the exchanges; they are there as financial instruments fundamentally to assist those who need to hedge positions, but they are also an investment vehicle. Hence, for example, during 2008 the tonnage traded on both exchanges represented approximately 19times the total world crop for that year.

Ancient times

These forecasts are based on the market participants’ perception of all currently available information. These forecasts will change rapidly as changes occur in the way information is perceived and analyzed or as new supply–demand information emerges. In addition to initial margins, the enterprise will be involved in making daily cash settlements to the broker. These variation margins represent adjustments to the deposits held by the broker. These daily settlements, which can result in an additional margin payment to the broker or in cash refunds from the broker are accounted for in the same way as the initial margin. In 2002, the trading value was RMB 3.94 trillion Yuan, while in 2011 it reached RMB 137.5 trillion Yuan.

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The https://forexaggregator.com/ markets are regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission . The CFTC is a federal agency created by Congress in 1974 to ensure the integrity of futures market pricing, including preventing abusive trading practices, fraud, and regulating brokerage firms engaged in futures trading. Futures are derivative financial contracts obligating the buyer to purchase an asset or the seller to sell an asset at a predetermined future date and set price.

Forward Market

Let us say there is a wheat producer who has enough grain to sell on the market. But the buyer, such as cereal manufacturers, would buy it for a lower price. A central financial exchange, i.e., futures market, facilitates the trade between the two. If commodities traders had to deliver the product, few people would do it. Instead, they can fulfill the contract by delivering proof that the product is in the warehouse.

But this compensation does not influence the information we publish, or the reviews that you see on this site. We do not include the universe of companies or financial offers that may be available to you. Any estimates based on past performance do not a guarantee future performance, and prior to making any investment you should discuss your specific investment needs or seek advice from a qualified professional. In addition, the daily futures-settlement failure risk is borne by an exchange, rather than an individual party, further limiting credit risk in futures. Futures are exchange-traded, while forwards are traded over-the-counter.Thus futures are standardized and face an exchange, while forwards are customized and face a non-exchange counterparty.

Although the high degree of leverage in futures can result in large and immediate gains, it can also result in large and immediate losses. As with any financial product, there’s no such thing as a “sure winner.” One more benefit to futures trading is tax compared to stocks, where the total of 100% of profits are taxed as ordinary income, and futures provide a potential tax benefit.

What Happens if You Hold a Futures Contract Until Expiration?

Trading on the futures market often occurs on a futures exchange, such as the Merc. For information on futures markets in specific underlying commodity markets, follow the links. For a list of tradable commodities futures contracts, see List of traded commodities.

  • You can’t predict the future, but you can try to predict — or hedge against — how much certain goods will cost when they arrive.
  • It supports various assets providing high returns in exchange for higher risk through multiple risk management and hedging techniques.
  • For decades economists have conjectured that the value of information may not necessarily be positive in equilibrium.
  • Trading takes place in a pit where traders, representing themselves or customers, signal their desire to trade.

Their delivery is at some agreed-upon date in the future at a fixed price at the time of the transaction. Futures markets today include the buying, selling, and hedging of more than just agricultural contracts. They include financial items as well, for example, the future values of interest rates. Contracts for future delivery, unlike other securities, can be created as long as open interest exists.

futures markets

Futures contracts can be made or “created” as long as open interest is increased, unlike other securities that are issued. The size of futures markets is larger than that of commodity markets and is a key part of the financial system. In this scenario, Ben has incurred a $20,000 capital loss since his futures contracts are now worth only $20,000 (down from $40,000). Ben decides to sell his futures and invest the proceeds in coffee beans (which now cost $2/lb from his local supplier), and purchases 10,000 lbs of coffee. One of the largest risk factors with futures is related to the margin requirements and price sensitivity.

Sono nato a Verona nel 1982, sono sposato e ho tre bellissimi bambini. Laureato in Scienze della comunicazione, sono iscritto all'Ordine dei Giornalisti dal 2005. Giá collaboratore di molte testate locali, presidente di una società di basket, ho vissuto tre anni in missione in Brasile e attualmente lavoro come operatore sociale in Caritas Verona.


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